The efficacy and prophylactic characteristics of omega-3 fatty acids in experimental gingivitis in rats


Original Article

Objective(s):Gingivitis is an inflammatory disease that affects tooth-supporting tissues and is caused by a microbe-immune response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on immune system regulation and the prevention and treatment of gingivitis using an animal model. Materials and Methods: Gingival inflammation was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Forty adult male rats were divided into four equal groups: 1. Negative control group (sterile saline was injected into gingival tissue followed by oral gavage with saline); 2. Positive control group (LPS injection was followed by oral gavage with saline); 3. Treatment group (LPS injection was followed by oral gavage with omega-3); 4. Prophylactic group (oral gavage with omega-3 was followed by LPS injection). After 24 days, the rats were sacrificed and histological tissue samples were randomly evaluated for the inflammatory tissue changes. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) levels were measured by ELISA. Results: The levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in the prophylactic group and the level of TNF-α in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the positive control group (P