Advanced Herbal Medicine

Journal Information



Number of Issues: 13

Number of Articles: 94

Update date:  2020/02/18

Journal Archive

Current Issue

Chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils and methanolic extracts obtained from wild and cultivated types of Thymus fedtschenkoi from East Azarbayjan, Iran

asad kazemi; faranak elmi; alireza moradi

Advanced Herbal Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 1-13

Backgruon and aims: The aim of this research was to compare the chemical composition and the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of wild and cultivated types of T. fedtschenkoi collected from East Azarbayjan, Iran. Material and Methods: The essential oils (EOs) from aerial parts of wild and cultivated T. fedtschenkoi were investigated by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Antibacterial activities of EOs and methanol extracts were tested against bacteria by disc diffusion method and determining their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values by agar dilution method and antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP assays. Results: Twenty-two components were identified representing more than 99.20% of the total oil constituents. The major components in the oils of the wild type were; thymol (49.21%), p-cymene (15.20%) and Carvacrol (10.20%) and for the cultivated type were; thymol (62.33%) and carvacrol (7.12%). The MIC values of bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of T. fedtschenkoi, were in the range of 2-128 μg/mL in wild type and 2-16 μg/mL in cultivated type. Conclusion: Our data show that cultivation significantly affects the EOs’ chemical composition and antioxidant potential of T. fedtschenkoi. They signify a reasonable source of natural antibacterial substances that proved to be potential as a drug for use in pathogenic bacteria.The antibacterial activity by the presence of inhibition zone appeared from EOs in the cultivated type on all tested microorganisms significantly higher than that in the wild type, which can be attributed to the presence of high concentration of thymol (47.48%) against the wild type (29.96%).

Antibacterial activities and ciprofloxacin potentiation of Melissa officinalis extracts against some gram negative pathogenic bacteria

Azizollah Ebrahimi; Maryam Shahrokhi; Saied Habibian; Sharareh Lotfalian

Advanced Herbal Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 14-22

Background and aims: In bacteria using inhibitors of efflux pumps (EPIs) is one of several strategies to combat with bacterial resistance. It is well documented that most medicinal plants especially those with antimicrobial properties composed of elements (EPIs) that disturb the efflux pumps of bacteria. The current work was designed to evaluate antibacterial activities of ethanol and chlorophorm extracts of Melissa officinalis and also synergistic effects of the extracts with ciprofloxacin against some gram negative pathogenic bacteria. We also examined the inhibitory effects of the extracts on efflux pumps. Methods: Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extracts alone or in association with ciprofloxacin or phenylalanine arginine β- naphtylamide (PAβN) were determined using broth micro dilution method. Effects of the extracts on efflux pumps of the examined bacteria detected by using ethidium bromide in well diffusion assays. Results: The extracts from M. officinalis showed antibacterial activities against all examined bacteria in a range of 3125 to 25000 μg/mL as determined by MIC determination. The extracts from M. officinalis showed synergistic effects with ciprofloxacin on Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii PAβN had no effect on MIC of ciprofloxacin but the association of extracts decreased it. In S. enertidis and E Coli both extracts of M. officinalis increased the amount of ethidium bromide accumulation (i.e. reduced efflux). Conclusion: The overall results show that associations of fluoroquinolones with extracts of M. officinalis may potentiate the antibacterial effects of fluoroquinolones.

In vitro Antisickling properties, Free radicals quenching potential, protective properties against oxidative mediated ions toxicity of combinations of Theobroma cocoa beans (sterculaceae)

Prosper Biapa; floriane Tammo; Jesse Tekumu; Prudence Nkwikeu Nya; Lena Yembeau; Christian Kengne; Phelix Bruno Telefo; Anatole Pieme

Advanced Herbal Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 23-32

Background: Sickle cell anaemia induces an abnormal haemoglobin (Hb S) synthesis. Hb S undergoes polymerization and causes the red blood cell (RBC) sickling with the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present work aims to determine the antioxidant and anti-sickling activities of the combination of Theobroma cacao (T. cacao) extracts from different regions in Cameroon. Methods: The extract combinations (Santchou and Obala (CSOH), Bertoua and Mbalmayo (CMBH)) was prepared using water/ethanol (30v/70v; pH=3). Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH°) and 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzo-thiazolone-6-sulfonic acid] (ABTS°) scavenging properties of extracts were determined for the antioxidant capacity. The liver homogenate protective activity of extracts was estimated by measuring Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Osmotic fragility reduction and anti-sickling properties of the combination were also investigated. Results: CSOH and CMBH respectively revealed a high content of polyphenols (274.6±5.1 and 289±2 mg Eq of Quercetin/g of extract), flavonoids (3.8±0.1 and 4±0.2 mg Eq of cafeic acid/g of extract) and FRAP (119.83 MEAA/g of extract and 114.33 MEAA)/g of extracts). Extracts scavenged DPPH° and ABTS° radicals, respectively with IC50 values between 4.07 μg/mL and 13.15 μg/mL. CMBH showed the best anti-sickling reduction activity (54.56% and 70.07% after 2h30 and 24h respectively). The haemolysis percentage of erythrocytes decreased with an increase of the extract concentrations. Extracts combinations decreased and increased the MDA and GSH levels respectively as well as normalizing the enzymatic activities. Conclusion: Cocoa extracts combinations especially CMBH are antioxidants and anti-sicklings.

A review of Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss , phytochemistry, pharmacological effects

sadegh dodman; Keramatollah saeidi; zahra Lorigooini; mahmud kiani

Advanced Herbal Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 33-40

The use of plants for treating the diseases dates back to the mankind birth on earth. The use of medicinal herbs is traditionally common in different societies; in Iran, the general population also uses medicinal plants to prevent and treat many diseases. Smyrnium is a genus of flowering plants in the family Apiaceae. The local names are Smyrnium vanagi and penoma. Smyrnium is a perennial plant with a height of 80 to 120 cm. The genus is represented in the flora of Iran by only one species, Smyrnium indigenous to central Asia, Iran, Turkey, and western Afghanistan. all organs of the plant including stem, leaves, fruits and roots contain essential oil. curzerene and curzerenone are the major components Oxygenated sesquiterpens of the Smyrnium essential oil. Smyrnium cordifolium Boiss is used in treatments for internal organ edema, especially in bladder and kidney problems. Smyrnium has been shown to be a potent natural antioxidant source. The purpose of this article is not to have extensive and sufficient information about the Smyrnium plant. So far, little research has been done on this plant.

Phytochemical composition and antibacterial properties of the essential oil of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae)

asad kazemi; faranak elmi

Advanced Herbal Medicine, Volume 5, Issue 1, Pages 41-52

aims: The aim of this study was to characterize the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Achillea biebersteinii essential oil (EO). Methods: The chemical composition of samples obtained from Marand city in East Azerbaijan, was assessed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antimicrobial properties were evaluated by the disc diffusion method against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), other extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) producing, as well as Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of EO was assessed using the agar dilution method. Results: In A. biebersteinii the major compounds were α-terpinene (41.42%), 2-carene (13.96%), m-cymene (13.41%) and 1,8-cineole(8.91%).The EO showed antimicrobial activity against ten microorganisms, especially Streptococcus sanguis, S. aureus (MRSA strain), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-producing strain), which was potentially better than tetracycline and kanamycin. Conclusion: This study confirmed that EO of A. biebersteinii has in vitro antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, which has made it an alternative antibacterial agent.

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