Journal of Mycology Research (JMR)

Journal Information

Publisher:

ISSN: 2383-3181

Email:  jmr@ut.ac.ir

Website:  jmr.ut.ac.ir

Number of Issues: 3

Number of Articles: 23

Update date:  2020/03/18

Journal Archive

Current Issue

First report on Fusarium virguliforme in Persian Gulf Beach soils

Khosrow Chehri

Journal of Mycology Research (JMR), Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 55-61

Fusarium species are cosmopolitan species that frequently isolated from soils and plantdebris and can seriously damaged plant, animal and human. Persian Gulf beaches in Iranare the ideal habitat for a variety of Fusarium species. Therefore, the study is conductedto gather some information on the population of Fusarium species which could be foundin Persian Gulf beaches in Iran. The study involved the isolation and identification ofFusarium species from beach soil samples in Persian Gulf beaches. The direct isolationtechnique from soil particles was used to isolate Fusarium species from beach soilsamples. Fusarium species were identified by the observation of macroscopic andmicroscopic characteristics. Fusarium solani is the most common species found on thebeach samples which had the highest percentage of abundance (58%). The percentage ofabundance for other Fusarium species is relatively low, where F. proliferatum consists of12%, followed by F. equiseti (10%), F. falciforme (10%), F. oxsysporum (7%) and F.virguliforme (3%). Molecular identification using translation elongation factor 1α (tef1)gene and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences wereconducted to confirm morphological data. Numerous Fusarium species associated withsoil and different plants have been reported from Iran. Until today, there are no reports onF. virguliforme in Iran. The study on the Fusarium species on beach soil samples ofPersian Gulf in Iran will provide insight on the influence of environment on occurrence ofFusarium in Persian Gulf.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii as a eukaryotic probiotic and its therapeutic functions

Hadi Pourjafar; Negin Noori; Hasan Ghorbani-Choboghlo

Journal of Mycology Research (JMR), Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 63-75

Fuller, in 1989, described probiotic microorganisms as “a live microbial feed supplement,which beneficially affects the host animal, by improving its intestinal microbial balance”.Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii (S.boulardii) is an accurate probiotic yeast idol.The detection and budding of S.boulardiiis firmly related to the impression of healthinessto promote microorganisms from foodstuff. S.boulardiiis similar to S.cerevisiae in that itequally does not have the capability to penetrate into tissues like the Candida species isable to, hence they are not invasive. Some printed medicinal researches have shown theeffectiveness and safety of S.boulardii for different illness indications in both adults andchildren. On the subject of the therapy employed, diverse indications of S.boulardii are asfollows: Anticipation of antibiotic related diarrhea, recurring Clostridium difficile relateddiarrhea and colitis, severe viral and bacterial diarrhea, travelers’ diarrhea, antiinflammatorybowel syndromes as well as Crohn's disease and so on. These days,S.boulardii is regularly marketed as a probiotic in a lyophilized shape and is oftenreferred to as S.boulardii lyo.

Identification and antifungal susceptibility pattern of Candida species isolated from patients with nosocomial candiduria

Azam Nademi; Hossein Shahrokh; Parivash Kordbacheh; Farideh Zaini; Sasan Rezaie; Mahmoud Mahmoudi; Mahin Safara; Hoda Moosa; Roohollah Fateh

Journal of Mycology Research (JMR), Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 77-84

Introduction: Nosocomial candiduria could be due to cystitis, pyelonephritis, or fungusball in the urinary tract system. Several reports have shown candidemia and upper urinarytract involvement as the complications of candiduria. The aim of this study was to assessnosocomial candiduria; identify Candida isolates and determine their drug susceptibilitypattern. Materials and Methods: Urine samples of 115 hospitalized patients werecollected during a period of five months. Candida species were isolated and identifiedusing conventional and molecular (PCR-RFLP) diagnostic methods. Antifungalsusceptibility profiles for amphotericin B and fluconazole were performed using brothmicrodilution method, based on the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)M27-A2 guideline. Results: Nosocomial candiduria was diagnosed in 5 (4.3%) patients.The isolated Candida species were identified as Candida albicans (n: 4) and C. glabrata(n: 2). Two strains of C. albicans, and C. glabrata were resistant to fluconazole.Conclusion: Similar to several reports, the results of this study show that C. albicans isthe main Candida species causing nosocomial candiduria and drug resistant Candidaspecies are causative agents of candiduria in hospitalized patients.

Phylogenetic analysis of HSP70 gene of Aspergillus fumigatus reveals conservation intra-species and divergence inter-species

Golnaz Sharafi; Ghasem Vahedi; Ramak Yahyaraeyat; Ali Reza Khosravi; Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

Journal of Mycology Research (JMR), Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 85-96

Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophyte fungus, widely spread in a variety of ecologicalniches and the most prevalent aspergilli responsible for human and animal invasiveaspergillosis. The first step to develop novel and efficient therapies is the identificationand understanding of the key tolerance and virulence factors of pathogens. The mainfocus of the present study is to perform the similarity, conservation and phylogeneticanalysis of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene of the fungus A. fumigatus. Therefore,DNA sequence of HSP70 gene was obtained from a native airborne A. fumigatus.Similarity, divergence and conservation of HSP70 gene sequence were assayed andcompared to other strains and fungal species using nucleotide Basic Local AlignmentSearch Tool (BLAST), construction of phylogenetic tree and online analysis tools. Theresults revealed that the most similar aspergilli to the examined A. fumigatus strain wereA. fumigatus non-native strains, Aspergillus clavatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillusterreus, and Aspergillus nidulans. Among other fungal genera, Penicillium species werethe most similar fungal genus to A. fumigatus. Moreover, the alignment results revealedhigh levels of similarity and conservation of native A. fumigatus HSP70 gene sequencewith yeasts stress-Seventy subfamily A (SSA) gene sequence from HSP70 family ofgenes and lower similarities with other genes in the family (Ssb, Ssc, HscA, Kar2 andbipA). Penicillium spp. were the most similar fungi to Aspergillus species byphylogenetic analysis of HSP70 sequence. Other molds, yeasts and yeast-like fungi wereplaced in more distanced clades. In general, fungal HSP70 sequence analysis could directus to make a better understanding of thermo-tolerance in different fungal species.

Study on the antioxidant activity and in vitro antifungal activity of Verbascum speciosum methanolic extract

Katayoun Nofouzi

Journal of Mycology Research (JMR), Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 97-103

The present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant and antifungal effects ofmethanol extract from aerial part of Verbascum speciosum. The total phenolic andflavonoid content and the antioxidant activity of the plant extract were determined byusing the Folin-Ciocalteau and the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicalscavenging assays. The total phenols and flavonoid content of leaves were determined as82±6.43 mg GAE/g extract and 30.79±0.5 mg RE/g extract, respectively. The extractexhibited significant radical scavenging activity with IC50 value of 32.35μg/ml. Themethanolic extract was investigated for its antifungal activity against some fungalreference strains which include: Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candidaparapsilosis, Candida krusei, Candida dubliniensis, A. flavus, A.niger, Penicillium andAlternaria. For minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) determination, a brothmicrodilution method according to CLSI M27-A and M38-A for yeasts and filamentousspecies was performed. The results showed that the highest in vitro antifungal activitieswere against C. parapsilosis and Alternaria. However, there were no significantdifferences between different fungal species. These results indicate a high potential ofantifungal properties of this methanolic extract. Therefore, it can be suggested to be aneffective replacement treatment for fungal infections or for the preservation of foodsagainst pathogenic and toxigenic microorganisms.

Comparison between Fluconazole and Terbinafine in the treatment of Tinea corporis and Tinea cruris

Mohammad Javad Yazdanpanah; Ali Akbar Shamsian; Masoud Shafiee; Mohammad Reza Hedayati-Moghadam; Kiarash Ghazvini; Elham Moghaddas

Journal of Mycology Research (JMR), Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 105-110

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficacy of Terbinafine andFluconazole in terms of mycological cure in the treatment of Tinea corporis and Tineacruris. Method: In this clinical trial, 30 patients with T. corporis and T .cruris wereselected. Patients were divided into two groups by random selection. The first group wastreated with Fluconazole 150 mg weekly for four weeks and the second group wasadministered Terbinafine 250 mg daily for two weeks. The participants were followed uptill the end of the treatment and one month after treatment. Results: At the end of thetreatment, 64.3% of the subjects in Fluconazole group developed clinical and laboratoryresponses; while the second group developed 75% clinical and 81.3% laboratory cure.One month later, 64.3% in the Fluconazole group were cured, while in the other group,87.5% were cured. No patient had any side effect. Conclusion: Although, no significantdifference was observed between these two groups of patients in clinical and laboratoryaspect, as a result of lower price and easier consumption, it is suggested that Fluconazoleis more suitable for treatment of Tinea infections.

Significance of galactomannan antigen for aspergillosis diagnosis: A review

Mehdi Taghavi; Esmaeill Mortaz; Donya Nikaein; Shamsadin Athari

Journal of Mycology Research (JMR), Volume 2, Issue 2, Pages 111-117

Invasive aspergillosis is one the major causes of death in hematopoietic and solidtransplantrecipients. One of the most critical problems in medical mycology is theinability to consistently make a convincing and early diagnosis of invasive fungalinfection. Conventional diagnosis methods such as culture-based approaches are limitedby the insufficient accessibility sensitivity and the non-culture-based approaches based onthe detection of specific fungal antigens, fungal metabolites, and fungal DNA are limitedby the slow speed of analysis. Early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is the maincomplication in its treatment. Galactomannan is a polysaccharide present in the cell wallof Aspergillus species. This carbohydrate is released into the serum during the invasion ofAspergillus. Recently, a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)was developed for detecting galactomannan antigenemia in the serum. This assay is animportant advancement in the nonculture diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis. The level ofgalactomannan in the serum may be an important indication of therapeutic response. Inthis review, the role of galactomannan in the diagnosis of IA and its significance has beenhighlighted.

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