International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering)

Journal Information

Publisher: Tehran, Iran University of Science and Technology

ISSN: 1735-0522

Email:  ijce@iust.ac.ir

Website:  ijce.iust.ac.ir

Number of Issues: 50

Number of Articles: 454

Update date:  2020/03/18

Current Issue

NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING OF SHEAR-CRITICAL REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS USING A SET OF INTERACTIVE CONSTITUTIVE LAWS

Vahid Broujerdian; Mohammad T Kazemi

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 507-519

Complex nature of diagonal tension accompanied by formation of new cracks as well as closing and propagating preexisting cracks has deterred researchers to achieve an analytical and mathematical procedure for accurate predicting shear behavior of reinforced concrete, and there is the lack of a unique theory accepted universally. Shear behavior of reinforced concrete is studied in this paper based on recently developed constitutive laws for normal strength concrete and mild steel bars using nonlinear finite element method. The salient feature of these stress-strain relations is to account the interactive effects of concrete and embedded bars on each other in a smeared rotating crack approach. Implementing the considered constitutive laws into an efficient secant-stiffness based finite element algorithm, a procedure for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete is achieved. The resulted procedure is capable of predicting load-deformation behavior, cracking pattern, and failure mode of reinforced concrete. Corroboration with data from shear-critical beam test specimens with a wide range of properties showed the model to predict responses with a good accuracy. The results were also compared with those from the well-known theory of modified compression field and its extension called disturbed stress field model which revealed the present study to provide more accurate predictions.

Nonlinear Response of Tension Leg Platform Subjected to Wave, Current and Wind Forces

Damilola Oyejobi

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 521-533

The occurrence of wave and wind forces on tension leg platform (TLP) was assumed to be statistically independent but the intensity of wave force is a function of wind velocity because wave is a wind driven force. The focus of this paper is to study the effects of wind velocity on wave force. The contribution of steady and fluctuating wind to the response of the TLP over random wave only was also studied. Pierson Moskowitz wave and Emil Simiu wind spectra are simulated using Monte Carlo simulation. The variable submergence, drag force in Morison equation, tension fluctuation together with coupling between wind and wave contributed to the non-linearity considered in the single degree of freedom equation. The dynamic equation was solved using Newmark-Beta scheme. The statistical and power spectral density functions of the response quantities are reported. It is concluded that wind forces reduce the root mean square (RMS) tension force in the cable and thereby increased the motion responses in intact and a removed tendon TLP. The wind driven force (wave) has higher responses in severe sea states and the contribution of wind effect was suppressed due to hydrodynamic damping. The effect of the wind fluctuation is more pronounced in less severe sea state.Stochastic response of intact and a removed tendon tension leg platform to wave and wind loads

On the Effect of Travelling Fire on the Stability of Seismic-damaged Large Reinforced Concrete Structures

Behrouz Behnam

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 535-545

Observations and investigations have proved that using traditional fire curves such as stand-ard fire curves and natural fire curves should be limited to small/medium compartments. In addition, when using the traditional fire curves, a uniform temperature is assumed throughout the compartment. However, for large open compartments, assuming uniform temperature is not compatible with real fires. To overcome this limitation, a non-uniform fire method named as travelling fire is employed as an alternative. A study is performed here on a seismic-damaged large plan 3-story reinforced concrete structure designed to meet the life safety level of performance when exposed to a travelling fire. To draw a comparison, the structural fire analysis is also performed using the traditional methods. The results show a notable difference – while the fire resistance based on the travelling fire is around 91 minutes, it is around 140 minutes when based on a uniform temperature. This shows that the structure studied is more susceptible to failure when subjected to the non-uniform fire than the uniform fire.

The Influence of Deterioration Parameters on the Response of Low-Rise Symmetric and Asymmetric RC Buildings

Abdolreza S.Moghadam; Masoud Nekooei; Ramin K.Badri

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 547-560

This paper investigates the effect of different deteriorating hysteretic model parameters on the response of asymmetric buildings. The example buildings are 5-story symmetric and asymmetric buildings. The maximum interstory drift ratio over the height of building is selected as the structural response in this study. A proper hysteretic model is used to simulate the deterioration properties of structural elements. The median response of building with different mass eccentricities is evaluated by 3D modeling. The results are provided for both torsionally stiff and torsionally flexible buildings. The results show that the effect of deterioration parameters are different for flexible side and stiff side elements. Those effects are mainly significant for higher intensity levels. That intensity threshold level is independent of all hysteretic parameters except for the plastic rotation capacity.

Seismic response of a prestressed concrete wind turbine tower

dongdong zhang

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 561-571

This paper compares the seismic load of a 5MW wind turbine supported by a 100-m-high prestressed concrete tower calculated via time history analysis and response spectrum analysis using elastic acceleration spectrum provided by the China Aseismic Code for Buildings. With 5% damping ratio, the fixed-based Multi-degree of freedom model and Finite element model considering soil structure interaction are used for response spectrum analysis and time history analysis, respectively. The results indicated that the seismic load calculated by response spectrum analysis is significantly larger than the results associated with the time history analysis method. It implies that the seismic load determined from common building code procedures along with other loads for wind turbine foundation design is too conservative. Within this paper, the effects of damping ratio, horizontal acceleration amplitude, spring stiffness and damping coefficient of foundation on the seismic load of the prestressed concrete wind turbine tower are discussed. It is shown that the seismic load with mode damping ratio for the prestressed concrete wind turbine tower is not significant when compared with traditional tubular steel designs. The maximum moment demand at the base of the tower may be controlled by earthquake loading as the seismic fortification intensity lever is more than seven. The foundation spring stiffness has a immensely impact on the base bending moment and the natural frequency. Finally, seismic load should be considered in more detail when designing wind turbines that are supported by concrete towers, particularly for turbine’s over 100-m tall and located in seismically active zones.

Seismic Responses of Asymmetric Structures Isolated with the TCFP Subjected to Near-Fault Ground Motions

Hamed Tajammolian; Faramarz Khoshnoudian; Nasim Partovi Mehr

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 573-584

This study is devoted to investigate the effects of mass eccentricity in seismic responses of base-isolated structures subjected to near field ground motions. Superstructures with 3, 6 and 9 stories and aspect ratios equal to 1, 2 and 3 have been idealized as steel special moment frames resting on a reasonable variety of Triple Concave Friction Pendulum (TCFP) bearings considering different period and damping ratios for the isolators. Three-dimensional linear superstructure mounted on nonlinear isolators are subjected to 3 components of near-field ground motions. Under 25 near-field ground motions, effects of mass eccentricity on the main system parameters are studied. These parameters are selected as the main engineering demands including maximum isolator displacement and base shear as well as peak superstructure acceleration. The results indicate that the mass eccentricities has not a remarkable effect on isolator displacement. In contrary to displacement, torsional effect of mass eccentricity raise the base shear up to 1.75 times in a three-story superstructure. Additionally, mass eccentricity can amplify the roof acceleration of a nine-story model approximately 3 times in comparison with a symmetric superstructure. It is also concluded that eccentricity in the direction of the subjected earthquake has the most impact on base shear while the isolator displacement and roof acceleration has mostly influenced by the eccentricity perpendicular to the earthquake path.

ANALYZING LEVEL OF SERVICE THROUGH ANTHROPOMETRIC SCALE AND ITS CONTRIBUTION TO TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

ilker erkan; hasan hastemoglu

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 585-593

In this study, the usage of the Level of Service (LOS) concept, which was developed specifically for pedestrian satisfaction and safety, was critically analyzed. The focuses of this investigation were the Fruin and Highway Capacity Manual (HCM) LOS values, which were evaluated and compared in terms of their anthropometric dimensions. In this paper, new LOS values are proposed on the basis of the critical evaluation of the HCM and Fruin LOS values revealing the inconsistencies between the LOS values and the analysis. The importance of emptiness area in calculating human comfort and satisfaction in terms of the anthropometric dimensions and LOS value is also discussed. A software program called Laborer Image Analysis Software (LIAS) was developed to evaluate and compare the impacts of different body dimensions on the LOS values and on the space requirements for pedestrians. LIAS is presented as a facilitation tool for calculating more concise and effective emptiness areas and LOS values. The comfort area concept is also presented and discussed. This discussion is used to reveal the contrasts and inconsistencies in the existing usage of the LOS concept and to highlight the importance of the emptiness area approach. The paper presents a different perspective and discussion on the existing utilization of LOS levels, particularly for pedestrians in different structures. The research contributes to the LOS analysis discussion in terms of the anthropometric scale according to changing user profiles and develops facilitator(s) for analyzing and applying amendments to pedestrian needs, which can be used in transportation buildings.

VULNERABILITY INVESTIGATION IN 3D FRAMED TALL BUILDINGS WITH STEEL PLATE SHEAR WALL, X-BRACED AND MOMENT FRAME SUBJECTED TO PROGRESSIVE COLLAPSE

Niloufar Mashhadiali; Majid Gholhaki; Ali Kheyroddin; Rouzbeh Zahiri-Hashemi

International JOurnal of Civil Engineering (Transaction A: Civil Engineering), Volume 14, Issue 8, Pages 595-608

Steel plate shear walls have long been used as a lateral load resisting system. It is composed of beam and column frame elements, to which infill plates are connected. This paper investigates the progressive collapse-resisting capacity of 50-story building 3D model of the strip model of steel plate shear wall comparing with X-braced and moment frame system based on the removing structural elements from a middle and corner of the exterior frame, in the story above the ground. The collapse behavior is evaluated by different nonlinear static and dynamic analyses using conventional analysis software. In this study, vulnerability of structures is also assessed by sensitivity index (SI) regarding the sensitivity of structures to dynamic effect induced by progressive collapse. To identify vulnerable members, resulting actions of nonlinear static analysis, considering load factor to account for dynamic effect, at the failure mode of structure at the specific performance level are compared by the factor of redundancy related to overall strength of structure, with the linear static analysis of damaged model without considering dynamic effect,. Comparing analysis results indicated that in the steel plate shear wall system, the progressive collapse resisting potential is more than X-braced and moment frame. Sensitive index of highly sensitive elements to dynamic effect stated that in the structural models, beams are more vulnerable in moment frame than X-braced frame and SPSW structure, significantly, and vulnerability of columns in X-braced frame and SPSW system is more than moment frame.

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