Background. Sport spectators are an essential part of the professional sport landscape. Spectators are important economically, because they generate revenue through ticket and concession sales, and provide ambience for broadcast televisions. Problematically, spectators’ attendance is declining in many professional leagues throughout the world.
Objectives. The current study aimed at identifying factors affecting spectators’ attendance in the Iranian Football League.
Methods. Initial data were collected using semi-structured interviews with 20 participants, with expertise in the Iranian Football League. Using Q Methodology, 50 Q-expressions were sorted by the participants. Then, Q-factor analysis was performed.
Results. The study identified seven broad factors: 1) Lack of desirable access and transportation services to/from the stadiums; 2) Defective implementation of strategic plans in federations and clubs; 3) The impact of low-quality plays and the superiority of TV services to stadium ones; 4) Inappropriate services in stadiums; 5) Inappropriate stadium atmosphere; 6) Economic problems of spectators; and, 7) Paying more attention to margins by media from the viewpoint of critics.
Conclusions. Football officials can increase the number of spectators in stadiums by systematically removing these damages from the Iranian football body, which may solve many other problems as well.
Background. There are many resources and capacities for the development of sport tourism of Iran which is neglected in terms of performance and research.
Objectives. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the content of sport tourism researches of Iran.
Methods. The statistical population of the study consisted of all research articles in the field of sport tourism during 2005 to 2018 that were collected from the internal and external databases (Academic Jihad of Iran) and the related internal publications system.
Results. The articles were fallen into three levels: macro, intermediate and micro, 5 general axes and 17 subjects; the most articles focused on the macro level and the axis of tourism development (45.45%) and the least articles on the micro and psychological level (3.78%). At the intermediate level, the two issues of employment, revenue, and quality of service were more of a concern for researchers. The findings showed that among the sports management publications, the highest number of articles (10.28%) were published in the publications of the strategic studies of sports and youth of the Ministry of Sport and among non-sports management publications, the most articles were published in the Tourism Space Quarterly (5.6%). Methodologically, most of the articles used quantitative method and a researcher made questionnaire and standard (86.36%), and descriptive and factor analysis (41.66%). Most studies are done on professors and managers and experts in education and tourism (24.24%). Regarding geographical distribution, the most articles are done with the national issue (23.48%) and the provinces of Tehran, Isfahan and Mazandaran (13.64%). Also, about 90% of the articles are attributed to the 2010s.
Conclusion. The analysis of the trend of articles in the field of sport tourism shows that the main challenge of the researchers in this area is the strategic dimensions and natural and climatic factors at the macro level; and the quality of services and employment and entrepreneurship is at the intermediate level and in continue, future researches can be focused on the planning on particular areas of tourism and some sociological issues in this area.
Background. Today, the necessity of studying the ethics of sport in the world of sports is obvious in national and international dimensions, especially given that in contemporary sport unfortunately ethical standards is less considered in the sports fields and is going to be weaker every day.
Objectives. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of moral orientation on the performance of wrestlers in Iran by explaining the model and providing a strategy.
Methods. The statistical population of the study included wrestlers participating in Iranian national Greco-Roman and freestyle (adults, youth, adolescents), Alich and Grapling (men and women), and Pahlavani (N = 220) wrestling teams. The current field study with descriptive-correlational design was specifically conducted based on structural equation modeling (SEM), relied on covariance. To collect data, questionnaire of moral orientation in physical education developed by Miltiadis in 2010 and the individual performance scale developed by Koopmans (2014) were used.
Results. The results showed that moral orientation had a positive and significant effect (r = 0.404, p = 0.001) on performance. Also, the components of deontological ethics, Teological ethics, and civil liability had a significant effect on the level of performance. Also, the path analysis model showed a positive and significant relationship between moral orientation (t-value = 6.04, r = 0.52).
Conclusion. Finally, it is concluded that moral orientation as one of the important criteria in the field of wrestling can have a significant effect on the performance of wrestlers and leads to an increase in their performance.
Background. The subject of PE is often considered as a field of equal opportunities and cultural coexistence, which facilitate social skills and create a harmonic environment. Sports are a most suitable field for developing social skills, facing the “different” and embodying normally all the participants who come from different cultural environments.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to control the validity and credibility of the Greek version Student’s Behaviors’Self-evaluation Scale, in a Greek multicultural educational environment and specifically in relation to secondary school students during their participating in the physical education classes. The psychometrical qualities of the scale were examined in addition to the influence of gender and age, as factors which differentiate the social skills of students.
Methods. The participants of the research were 182 male and female students studying in six multicultural secondary Schools in distinct geographical areas. The statistical analyses that were applied were: Confirmatory factor analysis, Reliability analysis, Independent-sample t-test and one-way ANOVA analysis.
Results. The results showed that the internal consistency of the sub-scales was high, since α Cronbach fluctuated in high levels (goals 0.84, rewards 0.85, relations 0.88, irresponsibility 0.78 and help 0.79). The confirmatory factor analysis certified the suggested structure of the climax (χ2 (413.33) / d.f. (109) = 3.79; P < 0.05; NFI=0.91, CFI=0.92, RMSEA=0.075 and SRMR=0.042).
Conclusion. Therefore, the results confirmed the suitability of the Students’ Behavior Self-evaluation Scale for the Greek school environment during physical education lesson. In addition, there was a confirmation that gender is a differentiation factor, while class (age) is not.
Background. The behavior and attitudes of employees with Plateauing not only include themselves, but also makes all members of the group in which they work to ask whether they are really suitable for the organ in which they work.
Objectives. This study is to design a model of Plateauing of employees of departments of Youth and Sport of northwestern provinces of Iran.
Methods. In the present study, a mixed strategy (quantitative and qualitative data), in-depth interviewing in the qualitative sector and exploratory factor analysis was used. The construct validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by Cronbach's alpha of 0.839 and according to Krejcie Morgan table, a sample size of 181 individuals was determined through cluster sampling. A total of 63 indicators were identified as influencing factors on the Plateauing of the employees of departments of Youth and Sports of northwestern provinces in the form of an 11 sub-factors and five main factors.
Results. Investigating exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and structural equation analysis showed that each of the main factors of skill factor (lack of technical skills and lack of work maturity) (p<0.05; T=11.07), psychological factor (lack of personal motivation, lack of external reward) (p<0.05; T=11.93), inside work factor (lack of job flexibility, lack of job transparency, and lack of promotion) (p<0.05; T=13.56), intra organizational factor (lack of proper training and lack of work communication) (p<0.05, T=14.82), and managerial factor (lack of manager support and dissatisfaction with management style) (p<0.05; T=14.49), are respectively influencing the Plateauing of the employees of departments of Youth and Sports of northwestern provinces.
Conclusion. It should be mentioned that by increasing organizations with flat structure and decreasing management positions at the medium level, the possibility of vertical promotion of employees in organizations has been decreased. The prevalence of organizational Plateauing is one of the consequences of failure to compete for tenure of jobs at organizational levels, so it is clear that performing repetitive tasks and working in uniform jobs increases the phenomenon of occupational Plateauing.
Background. Futsal has attracted many enthusiasts these days due to its special attractiveness as well as the skillful performance of players.
Objectives. This research was aimed at analyzing the futsal strategic plan in Sulaymaniyah province and providing management solutions.
Methods. The present research is a descriptive-analytical and applied research. The statistical population consisted of professors, managers and experts of the Sulaymaniyah Football Association Board and Coaches and referees, total of 53 people. To determine the research sample, total population sampling was used and the whole society was selected as a sample (N=n). The research instrument was an interview and researcher-made questionnaire, based on exploratory study and rewrite of the basics and similar studies, whose content validity was confirmed by experts and with appropriate reliability (Ra=0.89). For the analysis of data, descriptive statistics, internal and external factors evaluation matrix, SWOT matrix, and TOWS matrix were used.
Results. Holding scientific and academic courses for coaches and referees, lack of financial resources for spending on futsal sport, the existence of educational centers and universities in the province, and the lack of sponsors to invest and support futsal clubs were identified, respectively, as the most important strengths, weaknesses, Opportunities and threats. Also based on the internal and external factors matrix, the strategic situation of the futsal in Sulaimaniyah, Iraq, is located in the WO area.
Conclusion. SWOT analysis finding shows that weaknesses and opportunities overcome strengths and threats, respectively, so conservative strategies (improving internal weaknesses by exploiting existing opportunities) should be used. Therefore, the strategies to increasing the number and variety of community events and sports festivals, maximum use of available sports space and facilities and organizing regular leagues and domestic and provincial matches have been identified and proposed to remove current condition of futsal in Sulaymaniyah province.
Background. Kinanthropometric and Kinematic variable are important in the understanding of performance in various sports. These variables have not been explored among Tennis players in Nigeria.
Objectives. An exploration to establish a regression model for kinanthropometric and kinematic variables in relation to ball velocity of Nigerian Female Tennis Players.
Methods. Data were collected through direct standard anthropometric protocol and kinematic videographic technique with four Vicon MX 13 cameras. Subjects for the study were drawn from Nigerian female tennis players who participated in the 14th West African University Games and 19th National Sports Festival. Forty-six (46) of the athletes gave their consent to participate in the study, which took place between October to December, 2018. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23 to obtain mean, standard deviation, range, Pearson correlation Moment Coefficients and Regression linear analysis which was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant levels.
Results. Results from this study revealed that there was 60% prediction of interactions of the kinanthropometric and kinematic variables to ball velocity. The results further revealed statistically significant difference in the predicted variables (kinanthropometric and kinematic) to ball velocity at p<0.05. The study recommends that during selection processes, coaches should strictly ensure that only athletes with suitable anthropometric features specific for each sport are recruited. Also, the relevant outcome of the analysis should be employed in developing tennis sports as it will contribute to improving performance and increasing accuracy.
Conclusion. Using standard anthropometric protocols and videographic techniques to establish typical performance profile for Nigerian players would ensure a more reasonable assessment of match performances and assist to set practical training and match targets for coaches and athletes.
Background. Different studies indicate a high prevalence of eating disorders in athletes. These disorders represent a serious defect in many areas of life. Eating disorders can lead to changes in consumer or intake of food and significant damage to physical health and psychosocial sports performance.
Objectives. The aim of the present study was examining the effects of Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) on the symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa (BN) of the Athletes.
Methods. The research method was semi-experimental with pre-test, post-test, and three-month follow-up test. Three hundred athletes of endurance, aesthetics and weight-based pre-match sports assessed using the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) via Structured Clinical Interview (SCID) and found sixteen athletes with BN. Then they assigned randomly to control and experimental groups. The experimental groups treated by CBT using Fairburn et al. (2008) protocol (4 steps, 21 sessions during 16 weeks). Twelve weeks after the final session of CBT, all two groups assessed again by EDDS via SCID for follow up the persistence of CBT.
Results. The symptoms of BN is decreased significantly during CBT, but it didn’t change in the control group (Ƞ2=0.69, f2,28=30.77, p<0.001). On the other hand, the weight of athletes with BN symptoms increased significantly during CBT, but it decreased in the control group (Ƞ2=0.5, f1.27,17.78=14.27, p=0.001).
Conclusion. The results of the present study confirm the effectiveness of CBT on the improvement of BN symptoms and weight management, as well as its persistence in athletes.
Background. Competitive sport has the potential for high levels of stress and anxiety that may affect performance and increase the risk of injuries. While benefits of pre-training assumption of N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are well known, poor data are available on Schisandra chinensis. Schisandra chinensis is a medicinal plant in use in Chinese medicine which increases physical working capacity and affords a stress protective effect.
Objectives. We tested, in an open pilot study, the effect on competition related stress, anxiety and self-confidence of a novel formulation containing: PUFAs, Schisandra chinensis extract and vitamin D3.
Methods. A novel formulation containing N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), Schisandra chinensis extract and vitamin D3, five ml per day was administered to one group of fifteen elite sport athletes (basketball players). Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) tests were administered at baseline and after 3 months.
Results. All subjects completed the 3 months period of the study, all declaring a consumption >75% of daily recommended dose. No adverse event were registered. After intervention, the median cognitive state anxiety score remained mild (score 16) even if with an overall statistically significative decrease (p=0.005); same results were registered after intervention for the somatic state anxiety score (score 16) with an overall statistically significative decrease (p=0.008) and for the self-confidence score (score 22, range 15-30) with an overall statistically significative increase (p=0.008).
Conclusion. The results showed the positive effect of the treatment on the control of stress and anxiety and the improvement of self-confidence in a large majority of the subject enrolled. However, further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Background. Blended learning (BL) requires a virtual learning and online environment (VLE), which makes available a process for establishing learning communities. The Faculty of Physical Education at the University of Jordan designed several courses which incorporate blended learning with contact classes and online components on e-learning models.
Objectives. The present study is to investigate if modes of BL possible influence on students’ perceived achievement goals and satisfaction.
Methods. The research model is tested using a questionnaire survey. Eighty-three undergraduate sports students participated in the courses (Motor Learning) offered by the University’s Faculty of Physical Education. The participants were divided into two groups.
Results. Indicated that students were satisfied with the blended program and online learning environments, satisfaction was generally high with 83.4%. The results also show that BL rotation type (students rotate between online and traditional content on a fixed schedule) significantly affects learning satisfaction. Moreover, the quality of the teaching received the highest satisfaction level where interaction significantly affected self-study.
Conclusion. The feedback of students who are amongst the critical stakeholders is essential to ensure a successful implementation of bent learning.